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used, however, to relieve the aches and pains of rheumatism and malaria.
Q-14. Do opium consumers themselves usually desire to get free of the opium habit?
A. When the smoker commences the use of opium it is felt to be a pleasant stimulant. He enjoys the artificial strength and tone derived from it. During this early stage, if possessed of the means of procuring the drug, he shows, generally speaking, no desire to get free of the habit. When, however, the craving is contracted, and he becomes conscious of his misery as a slave to the habit, he does usually wish to be free, and would abandon the vice if he could do so without pain and effort. Unfortunately by this time the will-power is gone, and deliverance, in by far the majority of cases, has become impossible.
Q.-15. Is there among the Chinese in the part of China with which you are acquainted any wish that England should not allow opium to be exported from India?
A. There is decidedly a wish that the Foreign importation should be discontinued. The people generally look upon the opium vice as having been introduced by foreigners, without distinguishing between one nation and another, and they look upon its introduction as an immoral and hostile act. One native author writes: "It is not only that they (the foreigners) abstract so many millions of our money, but the direful appearances seem to indicate a wish on their part to utterly root out and extirpate us as a people."
The anti-foreign literature of Hunan is full of the severest denunciations against us as the originators of the opium vice in China. I am convinced that the relation between the two countries can never be what it ought to be whilst this traffic lasts, and that the
moral effect of its abandonment by England on the Chinese mind would be very powerful and highly favourable. The Chinese as a people would begin to see us in a new light and feel towards us as they have never done hitherto.
Q.-16. By what classes of persons and in what provinces or districts of China is Indian opium usually consumed, and how far does Chinese grown opium compete with Indian opium in the provinces or districts in which the two kinds are readily obtainable?
Q.-17. What will be the probable consequences of the prohibition or restriction of the export of Indian opium--
(a.) On the consumption of opium by the Chinese;
(b.) On the cultivation of the poppy and production of opium in China;
(c.)-On the arrangements made by the Chinese government for raising a revenue from opium?
Q.-18. Can you give any estimate of the area now under poppy in the several provinces of China and the average annual out-turn of opium?
Q.-19. What revenue does the Chinese government derive from opium, and how does the taxation levied on Indian opium compare with that levied on opium produced in China?
A. Others are better able to reply to these four questions than I am. But consult the Imperial Maritime Customs Reports.
I would only observe that it is very difficult to say what the Chinese government or people might do in the event of the prohibition of the export of Indian opium. Much would depend on the action of the government. As long as the Indian trade in opium exists the hands of the Chinese government are tied and paralyzed. They can simply do nothing but allow things to go on from bad to worse.
Their best efforts, however sincere and energetic, would prove abortive. If the Indian trade in the drug were abandoned the government might make an honest effort to stop the native gowth, and the attempt might eventuate in a diminution of the evil, if not its complete suppression. On this point, however, I have my serious doubts. I cannot close my eyes to the fact that opium-smoking has become so common, and that the habit has got such a firm hold on its victims that in my most calm and solemn moments I can see no hope for the speedy deliverance of China from the vice, even if the last particle of the Indian article had found its way into the country. The evil is now one of enormous magnitude, and the venality of the officials is as deep-rooted as ever, and I therefore fear that no legislative measures on the part of the Central government, however honestly adopted, would put an end to opium-smoking, and consequently to opium-growing in China itself. This, however, is only my opinion. Others think differently, and they may be right. But whether the and Chinese government would could put down the native growth or not, the path of England, as a great Christian nation, seems to me to be perfectly clear. It is for us
to wash our hands clean of a trade which is unworthy of ourselves and hurtful to the people of China.
Q.-20. Have you any other remark to make in regard to opium consumption among the people around you?
A.-I should like to call attention to the evil of opium as an agent used by the Chinese to destroy their own lives. In former days the Chinese popular methods of committing suicide were: hanging, strangling and drowning. Now it is opium-poisoning, a far easier and more convenient way. I am satisfied, from all I hear and see, that suicide is much more common in China now than it used to be, and that this is to be ascribed to the advantages of the new method as compared with the old. The old was clumsy, painful and uncertain in its operation. The new is gentle, painless and effective. A little scolding on the part of a parent will make the child take opium; a slight quarrel between husband and wife will make the wife take opium; a few sharp words about cash between an employer and an employé will make the employé take opium. In a fit of passion, or when deeply moved by a spirit of revenge, they think no more of swallowing half an ounce of raw opium than they do of gulping a cup of tea. There can be no doubt that opium facilitates suicides in China to an enormous extent. shudder at the thought of the thousands of victims who must be falling week after week, even in this particular way, into the pitiless jaws of this all devouring demon.
Opium in China is an awful curse, and that in more ways than
Reprinted from the Shanghai Mercury by request.
-Rev. W. R. Hunt, of Ch'a-cheo, Anhuei, writes under date 17th March, 1894:-The native Christian Church in this district is growing in grace and good works. winter they did much good, distributing garments to the destitute poor. Five persons were added by baptism this month; the most encouraging feature in these additions being in the fact that they were secured through the personal efforts of Chinese evangelist Shi and his energetic Christian wife. They are earnest workers, and have much influence among the villagers in the whole region. Three of those recently added are farm laborers from the province of Shantung, another is a poor teacher and another a woman neighbour whose husband was formerly one of the most bitter opponents of the work in this district.
Rev. M. H. Houston, D.D., who first came to China in 1868, and who for ten years rendered distinguished services to his Church as Secretary of Foreign Missions, has returned to Hangchow. The Southern Presbyterians have recently been very fortunate in having two physicians-Dr. Wade Hampton Venable and Dr. James B. Woods-both graduates of the University of Virginia and afterwards spending several years in the New York hospitals, to come to the Mission. The latter joins his brothers-Henry M. Woods, D.D. and Edgar Woods, M.D.-at the twin cities of Ts'ing-piang-p'u and Hwa-ian; the former is to locate at Ka-hing. The Mission now has twenty-three men and twenty-three ladies in the field, and they are maintained at a cost of $26,000 in
U. S. currency. In finance they occupy the silver mean, somewhere between the copper and the golden.
Mrs. Geo. S. Hays writes as follows with regard to work in Shantung :-In Chi-hia, where Mr. Hays is now preaching, there are about 1200 villages averaging probably 288,000 people. There is one rich man among them; 8000 work hard and are comfortably well off, but the remaining 280,000 are wretchedly poor, getting barely enough to keep them alive. It is a grave question with us about these poor people. A man professes to be a Christian; he is baptized. You see him almost starving before your eyes. What is to be done for him? Shall you give him a school or salary as preacher just to keep him alive? Shall you put all his children school for years at Church expense? Or shall you make it a rule to exclude all those who are
poor from the Church, fearing they are coming for the loaves and fishes? If we can do anything in the way of industrial work, which will give a man or woman a chance to earn an honest living if he really wishes to, it will be a great step forward.
MISSION WORK IN SHANTUNG.
At the Shanghai Missionary Prayer Meeting on March 19th the Rev. Wm. A Wills, from Shantung, was present, being on his way to England on furlough. He gave an encouraging account of the B. M. S. work at Ch'ing-chou Fu and Chou-p'ing.
He said they had eighty-nine organized Churches, besides over one hundred stations called Learner's Halls, with a membership of over 2000 and about 1500 candidates on probation. Last year over three hundred had been received into Church fellowship by baptism. Many of the Christians gave their leisure time, some four or five months of the year, to evangelistic work, receiving only such remuneration as would meet their
extra expenses while away from
These nection with his hospital. students had recently passed their final examinations with great credit and satisfaction. The aim that has ever been set before them was not pecuniary advantages, but that they should be medical missionaries to their own countrymen to carry ont the Saviour's command to preach the Gospel and to heal the sick.
The work at Ch'ing-chou Fu was the oldest, and therefore more thoroughly organized, but eight years ago, when he (Mr. Wills) first went to Shantung, the work in the Chou-p'ing district was not commenced, and now there are 1000 members. It is still the day of small things, but shall we not pray that this infaut Church may grow and increase to a strong and powerful Church of God, whose influences shall be felt over all of the province of Shantung.
The programme for the First Annual Meeting of the C. Endeavor Society, to be held in Shanghai June 24-26, is not yet completed, and will appear in the next issue of the RECORder. A very cordial invitation is extended to everyone interested in Endeavor work to be present.
The Progress of Work in
Various enquiries having come to the Finance Committee as to the progress of work on Bible revision, it was determined to ascertain, as nearly as possible, its present status, and to prepare a brief statement of the same for the information and encouragement of all interested in this important undertaking.
Accordingly, in sending out the remittances for the work of 1893, the Secretary requested each reviser to state how far he had advanced with that part of work on the N. T. allotted to him.
To this request all the revisers most kindly responded, with the single exception of the lamented Dr. Nevius, whose sudden death occurred before the communication of the Committee reached him. It has been since ascertained, however, that his work was fairly up with that of his colleagues and is in a condition to be carried forward by his successor.
It would be next to impossible to state in exact terms the advance that has been made, even were it the province of the Finance Committee to undertake such a thing, but the following general summary I will suffice to show that we have reason to be grateful to the eminent scholars who have given such unstinted care and labor to this work and to encourage us to look forward hopefully to the completion of a new revision of the Bible in all of the three versions.
STATEMENT OF WORK DONE
on the Mandarin Committee have finished first draft of the work alloted to them, and are now engaged in looking over the work of their colleagues.
Two of the revisers on the High Wên Committee, two on the Easy Wên Committee and three on the Mandarin Committee have finished first half of first draft, and are now engaged in completing second half of first draft and in looking over the work of their colleagues.
On account of long absence from China, one of the revisers has only begun his work on revision but his well known reputation as a hard and rapid worker is an assurance that the final completion of the work will not be delayed by tardiness on his part.
The entire missionary body in China will do well to remember in earnest prayer this great work and those who have it in charge.
C. F. REID,
Secretary of the Finance Committee for Bible Revision.
Diary of Events in the Far East.
9th.-Stranding of the S. S. Tantalus in a thick fog near the Nine Pins, outside Hongkong. The Chinese and foreign passengers-the latter being Rev. E. P. and Mrs. Hearnden, Nanking-were safely landed. Ultimately the Tantalus got off the rocks, although the Pilot Fish, sent to her assistance, became a total wreck.
11th, 12th, 13th, 15th.-Well attended meetings in Shanghai to hear addresses from Mrs. Andrew and Dr. Bushnell, representatives of the World's W. C. T. U. All interested in the cause of purity and truth have been awakened as never before to right feeling and faithful action in the matter. As was to be expected there was opposition, but the published objections coming from those who were not present at any of the meetings, were valueless.
Later on we heard from Nanking that "Mrs. Andrews and Dr. Kate Bushnell, of the World's W. C. T. U., addressed the native branches of their society in this city on Saturday afternoon last and spoke to the foreign residents on Sunday afternoon. The addresses were simple, straightforward and powerful, marked, as would be expected, by the most perfect gentleness and Christian courtesy." "Knowing something of the achievements of the W. C. T. U. and of the unjust odium which its leaders have been compelled to bear we feel that too much cannot be said in praise of the courage and patience which some of them have been called to exercise."
21st. From telegraphic news we learn that M. Le Myre de Vilers in an interview at Paris declared that under the