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THE PENNY CYCLOPÆDIA

OF

THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE,

TAI

|

TAI-WAN (Taywan) is the Chinese name of an island which in Europe is known by the name of Formosa, and Hermosa, and, according to the Dutchman Valentyn, is called by the aborigines Pekan or Pæk-and. It lies between 21° 58′ and 25° 15′ N. lat., and between 120° and 122° E long., and extends from south by west to north by east about 240 miles. In width it varies much. From its most southern point, where 't is only about four miles wide, it increases gradually, so that at 23° N. lat. it is 60 miles wide, and at 24° N. lat. nearly 100 miles. Its northern portion decreases in width, but very slowly, for near its northern end it is still 60 miles wide. A rough calculation gives the surface an extent of about 14,000 square miles, which is about half the area of Ireland, and 3000 square miles more than that of Sicily.

The north-western point of Taï-wan is only about 80 miles from the coast of the Chinese province of Fukian, or Fokian; but farther south the channel of Fokian, as the sea between Taï-wan and China is called, grows wider. In the parallel of Amoy, 24° 40′ N. lat., it is 150 miles across, and still wider south of that parallel. This part of the China Sea contains several banks, and the soundings are also extremely irregular, especially in the vicinity of the Ponghu or Phenghu Islands, called also Pescadores, or Fisher Islands. The southern extremity of Taï-wan is divided from the Bashee Islands, which are south-east of it, by the channel of Formosa, which is nearly 80 miles wide, and has also very irregular soundings.

The broad promontory which terminates the island on the south, and forms the south-east and south-west cape, is a low flat, but at the distance of about two miles the country suddenly rises into mountains, which continue to run in an unbroken chain northward nearly through the middle of the island to its northern extremity, terminating with high cliffs at the north-east cape. As it is certain that this range of mountains, which is called Ta Shan, or Great Mountain, is nearly the whole year round covered with snow, its elevation has been estimated by Humboldt at about 12,000 feet above the sea. The declivities of these mountains, with the exception of the crests of the most elevated portion, are covered with fine trees and pasture-grounds, and thus the island, when seen from the sea, presents a very pleasing appearance, whence it was called Hermosa by the Europeans who advanced thus far into the Indian Sea. These mountains have never been visited by Europeans, but from the accounts of the Chinese geographers, which have been collected by Klaproth, it appears that there is more than one volcano on this island. The Tshykang (Red Mountain), south of the town of Fung-shan-hian, was once an active volcano, and there is still a lake of hot water on Shin Mountains. The Phy-nan-my-shan, south-east of Fung-shan-hian, emits in the night-time a brilliant lustre. The Ho-shan (Fire-Mountain), south-east of Tshu-lo-hian, is said to contain many wells from which flames issue. There are some other mountains which exhibit traces of volcanic P. C., No. 1488.

TAI

action, and sulphur constitutes an important article of export.

The mountains have a steep declivity on both sides, but on the west side they terminate at a considerable distance from the sea, so as to leave a wide tract between them and the shore. This tract has an undulating surface, and terminates on the sea in a low sandy beach. The adjoining sea is full of sand-banks and shoals, and can only be approached in a few places by vessels drawing more than eight feet of water. On the east of the Ta-shan range the mountains seem to occupy nearly the whole space between the crest of the range and the sea, and high rocks line the shore. There are no soundings along this coast. This circumstance, united to the strong current which sets along this side from south to north, is probably the reason why this part of Taï-wan has never been visited by European vessels; nor does it appear that Japanese or Chinese vessels have any intercourse with this part of the island. It is an unknown portion of the globe.

Rivers are numerous on the west side, but as they originate in a very elevated region, from which they descend in continuous rapids and cataracts, they bring down a considerable quantity of earthy matter, which they deposit at their mouths, forming bars, which have so little water as to admit only small vessels: this however seems to be no great disadvantage, as there are numerous islands along the shore, between which junks of ordinary size (about 200 tons burden) find good anchorage. Some of the rivers however are said to be navigable for a considerable distance inland, especially the Tan-shuy-khy, which falls into the Tan-shuy-kiang Bay, which lies in the narrow part of the channel of Fukian. The rivers also offer the great advantage of an abundant irrigation, though they are sometimes destructive to the crops by their inundations.

No portion of the ocean is subject to such violent gales as the sea surrounding Taï-wan on the west and east. Both monsoons, the north-eastern and the south-western, blow in the direction of the channel of Fukian, and as they are confined between two high mountain-ranges, the mountains of Fukian and of Taï-wan, their violence is much increased. At the change of the monsoons the most violent gales come on suddenly, and are accompanied by typhons, whirlwinds, and waterspouts. Many Chinese vessels are annually lost at these seasons. The Japan Sea, which lies north of Tai-wan, is noted for its terrible tempests. In the vicinity of the island the north-eastern monsoon generally lasts nine months, as it continues to blow to the beginning of June. In other respects the climate of the island is very temperate, neither the heat nor the cold being excessive on the plains along the western coast. The island is subject to earthquakes, and they are sometimes very violent. In 1782 the whole lower portion was laid waste, and the sea inundated the conntry to the base of the mountains for VOL. XXIV.-B

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twelve hours. A great part of the capital was destroyed, and some hundreds of junks were lost.

The soil of the lower tracts and the more gentle slopes of the mountains is very fertile, and produces abundance of corn, which is exported to the harbours of Fukian, of which the island is said to be the granary. It produces rice of excellent quality; also wheat, millet, maize, and several kinds of vegetables, among which are truffles. The sugar-cane is extensively cultivated, and the sugar made in the island goes to China, as far as Peking. Orchards are carefully attended to. They produce oranges, pine-apples, guavas, cocoa-nuts, areca-nuts, jack-fruit, and other fruits found in the East Indies; also peaches, apricots, figs, grapes, pomegranates, and chestnuts. Melons are also much grown. Only green tea is cultivated, and it is stated that it forms an article of export to China, where it is used as a medicine. The blossoms of the wild jasmine are dried and exported to China, where they are used to give a scent to the tea. Other articles of export are camphor, pepper, aloes, and timber. Timber abounds in the large forests in the northern districts of the island. It is also stated that coffee, cotton, and silk are produced to a small amount.

The domestic animals are cattle, buffaloes, horses, asses, and goats, but sheep and hogs are rare. The horses are small, and the Chinese find them unfit for their cavalry. It is said that on the eastern unknown portion of the island there are many beasts of prey, as tigers, leopards, and wolves, but they are not found on the western side, where wild hogs, deer, monkeys, pheasants, and game are very abundant. Salt is made to a great extent, and, together with sulphur, forms a large article of export.

The population consists of Chinese settlers and of aborigines. The Chinese are only found on the west side of the island, where they first settled a hundred and eighty years ago (1662). Their number many years ago was stated to be about 500,000 individuals. They are mostly from Fukian, and have preserved the customs of their original country, and the spirit of industry and enterprise by which their countrymen are distinguished. A considerable number of aborigines are settled among the Chinese, to whom they are subject, and are obliged to pay a tribute in corn and money. The collectors of the tribute are Chinese, who are required to know the language of the aborigines for the purpose of explaining to them the orders of the court. It is said that the oppression to which the aborigines are subject from these interpreters frequently causes them to rise in rebellion. These aborigines are of a slender make, and in complexion resemble the Malays, but they do not differ from the Chinese in features. Their language shows that they belong to the widely spread race of the Malay nations; and it is said that they greatly resemble the Horaforas of the Moluccas. Their religion resembles what is called Shamanism. The Dutch took some steps to convert them to Christianity, but their sway on the island was too limited and of too short a duration to produce any lasting effect. Nothing is known of the aborigines who inhabit the east side of the island. They are not subject to the Chinese, and are said to be continually at war with them. Inhabiting a country covered with lofty mountains, they are said to subsist mostly on the produce of the chase and by fishing.

The Chinese portion of Taï-wan is divided into four districts, which, from south to north, are Fung-shan-hian, Taï-wan-hian, Tshul-lo-hian, and Thang-hua-hian. The capital, Taï-wan-fu, is a considerable place, and has a garrison of 10,000 troops. The wall was built in 1725. The streets are straight, and intersect one another at right angles: they are full of shops, which are abundantly provided with all articles of Chinese industry. The largest building is that which was erected by the Dutch during their short sway in Taï-wan. There is still a small church built by the Dutch. It is stated that 1000 junks can anchor in the harbour; but as the single entrance, at spring-tides, has but from nine to ten feet of water, only vessels of moderate size can enter it. There was formerly another entrance, which had a greater depth of water, and for the protection of which the Dutch had built the fortress of Zelandia; but it is said that this entrance has been filled up with sand. The commerce of this place with China is considerable. Wu-teaou-kiang, which was visited by Lindsay in 1832, has a harbour, which was then crowded with junks and numerous coasting vessels which brought the pro

duce of the country, especially rice and sugar, to this place. Tan-shuy-kiang, at the embouchure of the river Tan-shuykhy, is at the innermost recess of a fine bay, which is large enough for a numerous fleet, but has not been visited by Europeans. The best harbour is near the northern extremity of the island, and is called Ky-long-shai: the Dutch call it Quelong. It is capacious enough to contain 30 large vessels, and is the station of the Chinese navy at the island. An active commerce is carried on at this place.

The commerce of the island is limited to that with the eastern provinces of China, especially Fukian, to which it sends its agricultural produce, with sulphur and salt, and from which it imports tea, raw silk, woollen and cotton stuffs, and other manufactures. It is stated that the number of junks that annually enter the ports amounts to more than 1000. The navigation of the channel of Fukian, though difficult on account of the gales and the rough sea, is rendered much less so by the situation of the Ponghu Islands, which offer a safe refuge in time of danger. These rocky islands are thirty-six in number, most of them very small, and a few somewhat larger. The largest has an excellent harbour, in which vessels of between nine and ten feet draught may anchor in security. The Chinese have erected some fortifications on them, as they have occasionally been taken possession of by pirates, who frequently infest the adjacent coast of China.

Opposite the southern extremity of the eastern coast of Taï-wan is the island of Botol Tabago-xima. It is elevated, and about ten miles in circumference. It is surrounded by a sea without soundings, and no navigator has ever landed on it. It is said to be very populous.

It appears that the island of Tai-wan was known to the Chinese and Japanese at an early period, but they did not settle on it nor subject it to their sway. When the Dutch appeared in these seas, following the track of the Portuguese, they found no Chinese settlement either on the Ponghu Islands or on Taï-wan. They erected some fortification on the Ponghu Islands, and in 1634 they built the fortress of Zelandia at the entrance of the harbour of Taïwan-fu, where there was then a small town. They built also a small fortress at the harbour of Ky-long-shaï. The protection which was thus offered to emigrants induced a large number of families from Fukian to settle in the island, and the colony rose rapidly in importance. Meanwhile China was laid waste by the wars which terminated in the overthrow of the Ming dynasty and the establishment of the present family on the throne. The adherents of the former dynasty maintained their footing longest in the eastern and southern provinces, Chekiang, Fukian, and Quangtun, but being pressed by their enemies, they abandoned the mainland, and continued the war on the sea. One of their chiefs, Tshing-tshing-kung, called by the Europeans Koxinga, sailed, after the loss of a battle, to the Ponghu Islands, and occupied them. Hence he proceeded to Tai-wan, and finding only a very weak garrison in the Dutch fortress, he took it, after a siege of four months, in 1662. Thus the Dutch lost the island, after having been in possession of it for twenty-eight years. Tshing-tshingkung, the new king of Taï-wan, favoured the settling of his countrymen, the inhabitants of Fukian, and thus the island in a short time was converted into a Chinese colony. He was also favourable to the English, who had, during his reign, a commercial establishment on the island, from which they carried on an active commerce with Amoy. The province of Fukian, which continued its opposition to the victorious Mantchoos longer than any other part of China, had been compelled to submit to their sway; and as Tshing-tshing-kung had died, and the throne of Tai-wan was occupied by a minor, a Chinese fleet in 1682 took possession of the Ponghu Islands. The Chinese were also preparing a descent on Taï-wan, when, in 1683, the council which governed in the name of the young prince thought it most prudent to surrender the island to the court of Peking without a war.

(Père du Mailla, Lettres édifiantes et curieuses, vol. xviii.; Klaproth's Description de l'Isle de Formose, extraite de livres Chinois, in Mémoires relatifs à l'Asie; La Pérouse, Voyage autour du Monde; and Lindsay's Voyage of the vessel Amherst along the coast of China, in Parliamentary Reports, 1831.)

TALAPOINS is the name given by the Portuguese, and after them by other European nations, to the Buddhist

priests, or rather monks, of Siam, and is supposed to be | p. 110. In their dresses of yellow cotton or silk, which derived from the fan which they always carry, usually are of the same fashion with those of the Buddhist priests made of a leaf of the palmyra-tree, and hence, says Craw-in Ava and Ceylon, the Talapoins of Siam present a highly furd (Journal of Embassy to Siam, p. 358), denominated favourable contrast to the rags and squalidity of the geneby the Sanscrit word Tulpat. Tal is the common Indian ral population. On the other hand, a talapoin is not only name for the palmyra; and the older travellers give Ta- separated from society by being condemned to celibacy, lapa as the Siamese word for a fan. In the Pali (or learned and is prohibited from possessing property, but is expected tongue) the Talapoins of Siam are said to be called Thayn- to observe very strictly several of the precepts of the ka; but in the common language of the country they are national religion which are very little attended to by anyspoken of, as well as to, simply by the term Chau-cou, or body else, especially the prohibitions against the slaying Chau-ca, which signifies My lord (or literally Lord of me), of animals (although they will eat them when slain), stealthe first of the two forms being that commonly used, the ing, adultery, lying, and drinking wine. There are differother that employed to express extraordinary inferiority on ent orders of Talapoins, and La Loubere says there are the part of the speaker. (La Loubere, Du Royaume de also female Talapoins, whom he calls Talapouines; but Siam, i. 407.) Mr. Chawfurd states that they are called these, according to Crawfurd, are only a few old women Phra, which he says is a Pali word signifying Lord, ap- who are allowed to live in the unoccupied cells of some of plied also to Gautama or Buddha, to the king, to the white the monasteries. The national head of the Talapoins, elephant, to the idols of Buddha, &c. By the Burmese styled the Son-krat, is appointed to that dignity by the the Talapoins are said to be called Rahans, whence seems king, and always resides in the royal palace. to come the name Raulins, given to them by the Mohammedans; as by the Chinese they are called Ho-changi; in Tibet, Lama-seng or Lamas; and in Japan, Bonzes. (Prevost, Histoire Générale des Voyages, vi. 328; and Dr. Fr. Buchanan, On the Religion and Literature of the Burmas,' in Asiatic Researches, vol. vi.) In Ceylon the name for the ordinary priests is stated to be Tirounnanse; but, as the novices are said to be styled Saman Eroo Ounnanse, and certain inspectors, exercising a general superintendence over the temples, Naïke Ounnanse and Mahanaïke Ounnanse, it would seem that the name for priests of all kinds is Ounnanse. (Joinville, On the Religion and Manners of the People of Ceylon,' in Asiatic Researches, vol. vii.) Samana, or Somona, according to Dr. Buchanan, is a title given in Burma both to the priests and to the images of Buddha; whence the Buddhists are often called Samanians. It is derived, he says, from the Sanscrit word Saman, signifying gentleness or affability.

TALAVERA DE LA REYNA, or LA REAL, a large town of Spain, formerly in the province of Toledo, but now, since the late division of the Spanish territory, the capital of the province of its name. It is situated on the right bank of the Tagus, at the end of an extensive and well cultivated plain, 38° 52′ N. lat., 6° 39′ W. long. It was called by the Romans Ebora Talabriga, as the inscriptions and remains found in its territory show. It has a fine Gothic church, the foundation of the celebrated Rodrigo Ximenez, archbishop of Toledo, the author of a history of the Arabs and a Latin chronicle of Spain, about the beginning of the thirteenth century. The town is badly built, and the streets are narrow and crooked. The population does not exceed 12,000, who are chiefly occupied in the manufacture of pottery and hardware, for which Talavera is famous all over Spain. A large silk manufactory, which belongs to the government, employs also many of the population. In July, 1809, Talavera was the scene of a battle between the British under Wellington (then General Wellesley) and the French commanded by Jourdan. The battle was long and obstinately contested, but it ended in the complete defeat of the French. The exhausted condition of the English troops, who were without provisions, prevented them from following up their advantage and pursuing the enemy. There is another town, in La Mancha, called Talavera la Vieja, or the old.

TALC, a mineral which occurs crystallized and massive, and it is probable that some distinct species of minerals have been so called. Primary form of the crystal a rhom boid, but usually occurs in the secondary form of hexagonal lamina, and sometimes in long prisms. Cleavage distinct, perpendicular to the axis. It is easily separable into thin plates, which are flexible, but not elastic. It is easily scraped with a knife, and the powder is unctuous to the touch. Colour white, green, greyish, and blackish-green and red. Becomes negatively electrical by friction; lustre pearly. Transparent; translucent; opaque. Specific gravity 2:713.

Ample information on the subject of the Talapoins is given by La Loubere, who visited Siam in 1687-8, in quality of envoy from the French king, in his work entitled Du Royaume de Siam,' 2 vols. 12mo., Amsterdam, 1691, vol. i., chaps. 17, 18, 19, 21, pp. 341-368 and 381-426; and by Mr. Crawfurd, in his Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-General of India to the Courts of Siam and Cochin China' (in 1821-22), 4to., London, 1828, pp. 350, &c. They are, as has been stated, a species of monks living in communities of from ten to some hundreds, and employing their time in devotion, religious study, and meditation, and in begging, or rather receiving alms, for they are not permitted actually to solicit charity. Their monasteries, in which each monk has his separate cell, are always adjoining to some temple; but it does not appear that the Talapoins officiate as priests or ministers of religion in our sense of the term. Neither are they considered as forming or belonging to the literary or learned class: the pursuit of any secular study is looked upon as unseemly and profane in a Talapoin; and in fact they are mostly very ignorant. Yet the instruction of youth in the elements of learning appears to be chiefly or exclusively in their hands. Every Siamese, we are told, becomes a Talapoin for some time. Every male in the kingdom,' says Mr. Crawfurd, must at one period or another of his life enter the priesthood, for however short a time. Even the king will be a priest for two or three days, going about for alms like the rest, and the highest officers of the government continue in the priesthood for some months.' Usually, it may be supposed, a man goes through the ceremony of getting himself made a talapoin without any intention of permanently forsaking the world; but if he enters one of the sacred communities a second time, he cannot again withdraw from it. The Talapoins are said to be very numerous; but they seem to consist for the greater part of mere tempoSome of the varieties of tale are infusible; others be rary members of the order, and of persons who have thus come white, and yield a small button of enamel with entered it for the second time in advanced life. Its ad- borax. vantages, or temptations, are, a life of idleness, exemption Indurated tale is massive, of a greenish grey colour; the from taxation and from the conscription, security of sub-structure is schistose and curved: it is of a shining and sistence and comfortable raiment, together with the cere- sometimes of a pearly lustre, and somewhat translucent. monious marks of respect with which a talapoin is every-It is soft and rather unctuous to the touch. Its specific where treated. All the monasteries are endowed by the gravity is 29. government, or by wealthy individuals, under whose protection they are considered to be. La Loubere has given a drawing of one; and another is described in Finlayson's account of The Mission to Siam and Hué in 1821-22,"

Crystallized tale is mostly white, or of a light green colour; is met with in serpentine rocks in small quantity, with carbonate of lime, actinolite, steatite, and massive tale, &c. It is found in the mountains of Salzburg and the Tyrol it occurs in many other parts of the world, as in Cornwall, in Kynan's Cove, where a bed of it underlies serpentine. It also occurs in Scotland, in Glen Tilt, Perthshire; and in Saxony, Silesia, and Piedmont, &c. The massive varieties of talc are less flexible than the crystallized: they are principally of an apple-green colour, and sometimes of a radiated structure. It is met with in considerable quantity in beds in micaceous schistus, gneiss, and serpentine.

It occurs in primitive mountains in clay slate and serpentine, in several countries on the continent of Europe; in Britain, in Perthshire and Banffshire in Scotland, and in the Shetland Islands.

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