Puslapio vaizdai

ing them elsewhere. There is the rich savage face in which the struggle of Congo with French or Spanish blood is still going on; there is the old French marketwoman, with her irrepressible form and her rosy cheeks, and the bandanna wound about her head, just as one may find her to this day about the Halles Centrales in Paris; there is the negress of the time of D'Artaguette, renewed in some of her grandchildren; there is the plaintive-looking Sicilian, who has been bullied all the morning by rough negroes and rougher white men as she sold oranges; and there is her dark, ferociouslooking husband, who handles his cigarette as if he were strangling an enemy. In a long passage, between two of the great market buildings, where hundreds of people pass and repass hourly, sits a silent group of Louisianian Indians, women and girls, with a sack of gumbo spread out before them, and with eyes downcast, as if expecting harsh words rather than purchasers. Entering the clothes market, one finds lively Gallic versions of the Hebrew female tending miraculous little shops, where everything is labeled at such extraordinarily low rates that the person who manufactured them must have given them away; quavering old men, clad in rusty black, who sell shoe-strings and cheap cravats, but who have hardly vitality enough to keep the flies off from themselves, not to speak of waiting on customers; and sharp French landsharks, who have as eagle an eye for the earnings of the fresh-water sailor as ever had a Gotham shanghai merchant for those of a saltwater tar; mouldy old dames, who look daggers at you if you venture to insist that any article in their shops is not of finest fabric and quality; and hoarse-voiced debauched Creole men, who almost cling to you in the energy of their pleading that you make some purchases of them. Sometimes, too, a beautiful black-robed girl leans over a counter, and, as she adjusts her knitting-work, displays her tiny, faultless hands, and superbly-moulded arms. And from each and every one of the markets the noise rises in such thousand currents, of patois, of French, of English, of good-natured and guttural negro accent, that one cannot help wondering how it is that buyer and seller ever come to any understanding at all. Then there are the flowers! Such marvelous bargains as one can have in bouquets! Most delicate jessamines-modest knots of white roses, glori

ous orange blossoms-camelias, burningred roses and other red and scarlet blooms; tender pansies, exquisite verbenas, the luscious and perfect virgin's bower and the magnolia in its season, all these are to be had in the markets for a sum so small that one can hardly believe his senses. Sometimes there are great stores of fruit boxes broken open, when a Havana or a Sicilian vessel is discharging her cargo; and then it is a treat to see the swarms of African children hovering about the golden fruit, from which even the sight of stout cudgels will not frighten them. Coming out from the markets into the French quarter's venerable streets, and watching the serving-maids carrying home the trim baskets filled with the mutton cutlets or the steaks, the cauliflowers, the potatoes, the savory loaves of bread, and the bunches of salad crowning all,-one rubs his eyes, and feels almost certain that he is not in America. But to convince himself of his error, he has only to enter some of the restaurants on the American side of Canal Street, where the piles of oyster shells, and the odor of Washington pie, will quickly awaken him from his delusion.

Louisiana has some few valuable minerals, and the deposits of rocksalt in Vermilion Parish and of crystalline sulphur on the Calcasieu River, have encouraged a search for others, but the alluvial nature of a great section of the State prevents any extended mineral deposits. Iron is scattered at various depths over the surface of the State south of Red River, from Ouachita to the Badeau River, and in some of the parishes it is so abundant as to obstruct the plows or the hoes of the farmers. Valuable organized deposits of peat are found in many places near the coast, and the investment of a little capital might soon develop a great industry in the preparation of this important fuel. Coal abounds in certain regions through which railway lines are already projected, and the petroleum wells in Bossier, Bienville, and Natchitoches Parishes, as well as in a broad belt extending nearly to the gulf in Calcasieu Parish, promise a remarkable development. The salt region runs through five islands, ranged along the coast about twenty miles west of the mouth of the Atchafalaya, and one of which is one hundred and forty feet above the seatide level.

The bugbear of yellow fever has been a drawback to the prosperity of New Orleans

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those of the North, there are none of the wretched chronic complaints, terminating in a lingering and painful death, which come from the racking conflict of extremes found in the New England climate.

Vast numbers of Louisianians disbelieve in the efficacy of quarantine against the yellow fever.

They say that during seventy years, since 1796 to 1870, they had quarantine nineteen times, and in each of these nineteen years the dread fever came, and at least showed its ugly face. The war quarantine, they assert, failed every year of the

valuable, since they have watched cases for weeks after exposure. A proper regard for drainage and cleanliness of streets had never been known in New Orleans in midsummer before the war, and it is the opinion of many good authorities that a careful investigation of all vessels arriving from foreign ports, and a sanitary police of the most rigorous character in town, will soon make the fever a rare and not a very dangerous visitor.

The Charity Hospital is one of the noblest buildings in the city, and the people of New Orleans have good reason to be proud of

it. Dating from the earliest foundation of the City, it has never closed its hospitable doors save when accident has compelled it temporarily to do so. From the time when the Ursuline nuns took charge of it under Bienville until now it has been one of the most beneficent charities in the


No question of race, nationality, religion, sex or character hinders a single applicant for repose and healing within the walls from admission; and the best medical talent of the city is placed at the disposition of the poorest and meanest of its citizens. The Asylum of St. Elizabeth, and the male and female orphan asylums, are noteworthy charities, and the Maison de Santé was long celebrated.

When you are tired of in-door life and the attractions of commerce and society, when not even the charms of the Boston, or the Pickwick, or the Chalmette-noted clubs all-can longer content you; when the perilous crusade along St. Charles Street, where the impudent gamblers and "ropersin" stand eager to attract the unwary, and, unmindful alike of the scorn of honest citizens and intelligent strangers, blink before the doors of their dens, like foul spiders basking in the sun,-you can always turn with fresh inspiration and delight to the beautiful promenades which either the French or American quarters-once you are a little remote from their business centers can furnish you.

If your wanderings take you to the American Quarter, and there saunters leisurely by you a tall, slender, handsome man, elegant in dress, with his brilliant eyes flashing from under a dark slouch hat, and his long moustaches curling gracefully about a pair of resolved lips, with his daintily-gloved hands toying at a Havana cigar, and the eyes of all passers-by turned towards him, you will have seen Warmoth, the man who puzzles even the sagest in Louisiana; whose career does not seem so dreadful to the Conservatives now that he appears to be upon their side; who was the prince of carpet-baggers until he found that, like Actæon, he was being hunted by his own hounds; who is, indeed, from time to time, hunted by old enemies who wish to take his life; but who evidently believes in fate, and thinks that that fate will carry him farther than the governorship of Louisi


A thin, nervous, blond man, with fine clear-cut features, and glowing language


when engaged in any subject interesting him, surrounded by a dozen gentlemen of the before-the-war régime, might be pointed out to you as Governor McEnery, sir; the rightful Governor of this State, sir;" and another thin, perplexed looking gentleman, with dark hair and beard framing a sharp, shrewd face, and with a terrible atmosphere of overwork about him as he rode by in his carriage, would be shown to you as "Governor Kellogg."

Following him into his cabinet in the extempore State-house, you would find him surrounded by a host of eager mortals, each bringing a hundred grievances, and would see the ante-chamber thronged with dozens of negroes and white hangers-on at the skirts of Legislation. Now and then you would think him lost in the whirlpool of dark or tawny heads and faces, fancying him sooner in a mob's midst than safe in a gubernatorial chair, but he would "come up smiling" each time, and you would hear him calling out fresh instructions as each batch of suppliants departed.

You would never weary of a promenade in that pleasant section of the great river city where the old ramparts of Bienville's fortress ran, and which was finally named Esplanade street. You could wander up that delightful avenue, the perfume from the rich blooms in the gardens drifting by you, until you reached the race-park, and there you might enter and look out over the town from the hospitable parlors of the Jockey Club, or stroll in their pretty gardens. Or you could go farther, to the City Park, where the superb oaks throw charming shadows against the sun, or returning, you could pass a little bridge over the black water of a verdure-bordered canal, and hear the brown fishermen singing in the sun; watch the mules toiling along the tow-path, their scraggy hides glistening as they toil; catch a glimpse of a delicious little cottage, embowered in trees and blossoms, behind a forbidding hedge; see a spectacled German cultivating cabbages and rose-trees together on the very borders of the canal; note the tapering masts and spars which from a distance look as if they grew out of the housetops instead of from shipping on the narrow water-way; and see the Creole lovers, in gorgeous toilets, vaguely sauntering hand in hand, moved to most extravagant professions of French. delight by the smallest circumstance, such as the evolutions of the ducklings in the

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ALONE of all created beings, unfettered by necessities of soil and climate, Man successfully maintains his existence in every quarter of the globe. Under the burning sun of the tropics and in the iceclad regions round the poles-where the last grasses mark, on the edge of the perpetual snow, the limits of expiring vegetation, as in countries where all nature teems with an exuberant vitality, man subsists and multiplies. The influence of climate upon man seems, indeed, to be very small and insignificant; and it is questionable if we can ascribe to this cause even the comparatively trivial distinctions which separate the different races of mankind. The unity of the human race, if not capable of direct and absolute proof, nevertheless has

an enormous balance of evidence in its favor. Comparative anatomy shows that the utmost physical differences amongst men are only such as relate to the possession of a more or less oval head, a nose more or less flattened, jaws more or less projecting, and a greater or smaller quantity of coloring-matter in the skin. This last mentioned difference is so conspicuous, even to common observation, that the various tribes of men have been often on this account grouped under four great divisions

the White, Yellow, Red, and Black Races. Though these divisions cannot be considered as being of scientific value, nevertheless the color of the skin is often associated with other peculiarities of greater weight and importance. The white

races may, without conceit, regard themselves as being the highest type of humanity as we see it to-day. Their pre-eminence is attested no less by their straight and regular features, and their superior muscular strength and endurance, than by their higher intelligence and refinement; and though beauty of form and lineaments, even according to our standard, is not i wanting amongst other races, still it attains its highest development as the expression of the "supreme Caucasian mind."

The characteristics of the Yellow Races find their most marked expression in the Chinese, stationary for the last thirty centturies alike in their civilization and their physical organization. With a yellow or tawny skin we find associated a broad head and angular face, oblique, almondshaped eyes, straight hair, and a scanty beard. To these merely external characters, mental peculiarities, little less marked in their nature, ally themselves; and the typical "Mongolians" can hardly be confounded with any other people upon the earth. Distinct as they are, however, there is good reason for believing that the so-called red races are a mere offshoot and modification of them, not distinct as to origin, and only altered by long separation from the parent-stock and by constant battling with dissimilar conditions of life and external surroundings. The North American Indian is a Mongolian with a brownish-red or copper-colored skin, and his high cheek-bones, low and narrow forehead,






and prominent features, can only be looked upon as characters of secondary importance.

The so-called black races are not all black; for, if any scientific classification of the human race is to be adopted, we must place side by side with the negro certain other tribes whose color is much lighter, whilst the "black fellows" of Australia must find a position elsewhere. However, the negro may be taken as typical of the black races or "Ethiopians," all of which are distinguished by their long and narrow skulls, crisp and curly hair, projecting jaws, and thick lips.

As to the origin of these different races of man, science can as yet give us no information. We do not know the springs and causes of the striking differences which distinguish the peoples of different parts of the earth, and we are absolutely ignorant as to the time when these differences were produced. Man, however, as a "social animal," is distinguished as much by his relations with his fellow man as by his merely physical peculiarities; and many writers have endeavored with more or less success to unravel the complexities of human-life and to investigate the laws which bind human beings into societies. There is little agreement upon this subject, but four phases of social life may be more or less clearly distinguished as existing at the present day. First we have the truly savage life, in which man

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