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Dupont de Nemours, the editor of Tur- exactest computations, will, in another got's works, published in 1803, remarks century, become more numerous than in a note as follows:

England itself. Should this be the “It was in 1750 that M. Turgot, case, since we have, I may say, all the being then only twenty-three years naval stores of the nations in our hands, old, and devoted in a seminary to the it will be easy to obtain the mastery of study of theology, divined, foresaw the the seas; and then the united force of revolution which has formed the Unit- all Europe will not be able to subdue ed States, — which has detached them us. The only way to keep us from setfrom the European power apparently the ting up for ourselves is to disunite us. most capable of retaining its colonies Divide et impera. Keep us in distinct under its domination."

colonies, and then, some great men in At the time Turgot wrote, Canada each colony desiring the monarchy of was a French possession ; but his words the whole, they will destroy each others' are as applicable to this colony as to the influence, and keep the country in equiUnited States. When will this fruit be librio."* ripe?

On this letter his son, John Quincy

Adams, remarks: JOHN ADAMS. — 1755, 1776, 1780, 1785,

" Had the political part of it been 1787.

written by the minister of state of a

European monarchy, at the close of a Next in time among the prophets long life spent in the government of was John Adams, who has left on nations, it would have been pronounced record at different dates several pre- worthy of the united wisdom of a Burdictions which show a second-sight of leigh, a Sully, or an Oxenstiern. . . no common order. Of his life I need In one bold outline he has exhibited by say nothing, except that he was born anticipation a long succession of pro19th October, 1735, and died 4th July, phetic history, the fulfilment of which is 1826. I mention the predictions in the barely yet in progress, responding exorder of their utterance.

actly hitherto to his foresight, but the 1. While teaching a school at Worces- full accomplishment of which is reter, and when under twenty years of age, served for the development of after he wrote a letter to one of his youthful ages. The extinction of the power companions, bearing date 12th October, of France in America, the union of the 1755, which is a marvel of foresight. British North American Colonies, the Fifty-two years afterwards, when al- achievement of their independence, and ready much of its prophecy had been the establishment of their ascendency fulfilled, the original was returned to its in the community of civilized nations author by the son of his early comrade by the means of their naval power, are and correspondent, Nathan Webb, who all foreshadowed in this letter, with a was at the time dead. In this letter, clearness of perception and a distinctafter remarking gravely on the rise and ness of delineation which time has fall of nations, with illustrations from done little more than to convert into Carthage and Rome, he proceeds :- historical fact.” †

England began to increase in power 2. The Declaration of Independence and magnificence, and is now the great bears date 4th July, 1776, for on that est nation of the globe. Soon after the day it was signed; but the vote which Reformation, a few people came over determined it was on the 2d July. On into this New World for conscience' the 3d July, John Adams, in a letter sake. Perhaps this apparently trivial to his wife, wrote as follows:incident may transfer the great seat of “ Yesterday the greatest question empire to America. It looks likely to

* John Adams, Works, Vol. I. p. 23. See also me; for if we can remove the turbulent

Vol. IX. pp. 591, 5ge. Gallics, our people, according to the * Ibid., Vol. I. pp. 24, 25.

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was decided which ever was debated is increased reason to celebrate the day in America, and a greater, perhaps, on which the mighty Declaration was never was nor will be decided among made, and new occasion for triumph in men. .... I am surprised at the sud- the rays of ravishing light and glory. denness as well as greatness of this 3. Here is another prophetic passage revolution. Britain has been filled in a letter dated at Paris, 13th July, with folly, and America with wisdom. 1780, and addressed to the Count de At least this is my judgment. Time Vergennes of France, pleading the must determine. It is the will of cause of the colonists: Heaven that the two countries should “ The United States of America are be sundered forever. . ... The day is a great and powerful people, whatever past. The second day of July, 1776, European statesmen may think of them. will be the most memorable epocha in If we take into our estimate the numthe history of America. I am apt to bers and the character of her people, the believe that it will be celebrated by suc- extent, variety, and fertility of her soil, ceeding generations as the great anni- her commerce, and her skill and maversary festival. It ought to be com- terials for ship-building, and her seamemorated, as the day of deliverance, men, excepting France, Spain, England, by solemn acts of devotion to God Al- Germany, and Russia, there is not a mighty. It ought to be solemnized state in Europe so powerful. Breaking with pomp and parade, with shows, off such a nation as this from the Enggames, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and lish so suddenly, and uniting it so illuminations, from one end of this closely with France, is one of the most continent to the other, from this time extraordinary events that ever hapforward, forevermore. You will think pened among mankind." * me transported with enthusiasm, but I Perhaps this may be considered a am not. I am well aware of the toil statement rather than a prophecy; but and blood and treasure that it will cost it illustrates the prophetic character of us to maintain this Declaration, and the writer. support and defend these States. Yet, 4. In an official letter to the Presithrough all the gloom, I can see the ray dent of Congress, dated at Amsterdam, of ravishing light and glory; and that 5th September, 1780, the same writer, posterity will triumph in that day's while proposing an American Academy transaction, even although we should for refining, improving, and ascertainrue it, which I trust in God we shall ing the English language, thus predicts

the extension of this language : Here is a comprehensive prophecy, English is destined to be in the next first, that the two countries would be and succeeding centuries more generally separated forever ; secondly, that the the language of the world than Latin anniversary of Independence would be was in the last or French is in the prescelebrated as a great annual festival ; ent age. The reason of this is obvious, and, thirdly, that posterity would tri- because the increasing population in umph in this transaction, where, through America, and their universal connecall the gloom, shone rays of ravishing tion and correspondence with all nalight and glory; all of which has been tions, will, aided by the influence of fulfilled to the letter. Recent events England in the world, whether great give to the Declaration additional im- or small, force their language into genportance. For a long time its great eral use, in spite of all the obstacles promises that all men are equal, and that may be thrown in their way, if any that rightful government stands only such there should be.” + on the consent of the governed, were In another letter of an unofficial chardisowned by our country. Now that at acter, dated at Amsterdam, 23d Septemlast they are beginning to prevail, there

* Ibid., Vol. VII. p. 227. • John Adams, Works, Vol. I. pp. 230, 232.

+ Ibid., p. 250.

not." *

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ber, 1780, he thus repeats his proph- “ The United States of America have ecy :

exhibited, perhaps, the first example of * You must know I have undertaken governments erected on the simple to prophesy that English will be the principles of nature. . . . . Thirteen most respectable language in the world, governments thus founded on the natand the most universally read and spo- ural authority of the people alone, withken in the next century, if not before the out a pretence of miracle or mystery, close of this. American population will and which are destined to spread over in the next age produce a greater num- the northern part of that whole quarter ber of persons who will speak English of the globe, are a great point gained in than any other language, and these per- favor of the rights of mankind. The sons will have more general acquaint- experiment is made, and has completely ance and conversation with all other succeeded.” * nations than any other people.” *

Here is foretold nothing less than This prophecy is already accom- that our system of government is to plished. Of all the European langua- embrace the whole continent of North ges, English is most extensively spo

America. ken. Through England and the United States it has become the language GALIANI. — 1776, 1778. of commerce, which, sooner or later, must embrace the globe. The German AMONG the most brilliant persons in philologist, Grimm, has followed our this list is the Abbé Galiani, a NeapolAmerican prophet in saying that it itan, who was born in 1728, and died at “ seems chosen, like its people, to rule Naples in 1787. Although Italian by in future times in a still greater degree birth, yet by the accident of official resin all the corners of the earth." +

idence he became for a while domesti5. There is another prophecy, at

cated in France, wrote the French lanonce definite and broad, which proceed- guage, and now enjoys a French repued from the same eminent quarter. In tation. His writings in French and his a letter dated London, 17th October,

letters have the wit and ease of Voltaire. 1785, and addressed to John Jay, who Galiani was a genius. Whatever he was at the time Secretary for Foreign

touched shone at once with his brightAffairs under the Confederation, John ness, in which there was originality as Adams reveals his conviction of the well as knowledge. He was a finished importance of France to us, “while scholar, and very successful in lapidary England held a province in America”; verses. Early in life, while in Italy, he and then, in another letter, dated 21st wrote a grave essay on Money, which October, 1785, reports the saying of

contrasted with another of rare humor people about him, that Canada and suggested by the death of the public Nova Scotia inust soon be ours; there

executioner. Other essays followed, must be war for it; they know how it and then came the favor of that conwill end, but the sooner the better. genial pontiff, Benedict XIV. In 1760 This done, we shall be forever at

he found himself at Paris, as Secretary peace ; till then, never." S These intin of the Neapolitan Embassy. Here he mations foreshadow the prophecy which mingled with the courtiers officially, acwill be found in the Preface to his cording to the duties of his position, “Defence of the American Constitu- but he fraternized with the liberal and tions," written in London, while he sometimes audacious spirits who exwas Minister there, and dated at Gros

ercised such an influence over socievenor Squart, ist January, 1787 : –

ty and literature. He was soon recog

nized as one of them, and as inferior to John Adams, Works, Vol. IX. p. 510.

none. His petty stature was forgotten, + Keith Johnston, Physical Atlas, p. 114.

when he conversed with inexhaustible ! John Adams, Works, Vol. VIII. p. 322. 8 Ibid. p. 33

John Adams, Works, Vol. IV. p. 293.

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faculties of all kinds, so that he seemed All depends on races.

The first, an Encyclopædia, Harlequin, and Ma- the most noble of races, comes naturalchiavelli all in one. The atheists at the ly from the North of Asia. The RusThursday dinner of D’Holbach were sians are the nearest to it, and this is confounded, while he enforced the ex- the reason why they have made more istence of God. Into the questions of progress in fifty years than can be got political economy which occupied at- out of the Portuguese in five huntention at the time he entered with a dred.” * pen which seemed borrowed from the Belonging to the Latin race, Galiani French Academy. His Dialogues sur was entitled to speak thus freely. le Commerce des Blés had the success 1. In another letter to Madame of a romance ; ladies carried this book d'Épinay, dated at Naples, 18th May, on corn in their work-baskets. Re- 1776, he had already foretold the sucturning to Naples, he continued to live cess of our Revolution. Few prophets in Paris through his correspondence, have been more explicit than he was in especially with Madame d'Epinay, the the following passage: Baron d'Holbach, Diderot, and Grimm.* “Livy said of his age, which so

Among his later works, after his re- much resembled ours, ‘Ad hæc temturn to Naples, was a solid volume — pora ventum est quibus, nec vitia nosnot to be forgotten in the History of tra, nec remedia pati possumus,'—'We International Law - on the “Rights of are in an age where the remedies hurt Neutrals,” where a difficult subject is as much as the vices.' Do you know treated with such mastery that, half the reality? The epoch has come of a century later, D'Hautefeuille, in his the total fall of Europe, and of transelaborate treatise, copies from it at migration into America. All here turns length. Galiani was the predecessor into rottenness, religion, laws, arts, of this French writer in the extreme sciences, - and all hastens to renew itassertion of neutral rights. Other self in America. This is not a jest ; nor works were left at his death in manu- is it an idea drawn from the English script, some grave and some humor- quarrels ; I have said it, announced it, . ous; also letters without number. The preached it, for more than twenty years, letters he had preserved from Italian and I have constantly seen my prophesavans filled eight large volumes ; those cies come to pass. Therefore, do not from savans, ministers, and sovereigns buy your house in the Chaussée d'Anabroad filled fourteen. His Parisian tin; you must buy it in Philadelphia. correspondence did not see the light My trouble is that there are no abbeys till 1818, although some of the letters in America." + may be found in the contemporary cor- This letter was written some months respondence of Grimm.

before the Declaration of Independence In his Parisian letters, which are ad- was known in Europe. dressed chiefly to that clever individu- 2. In another letter, dated at Naality, Madame d'Epinay, the Neapoli- ples, 7th February, 1778, the Abbé altan Abbé shows not only the brilliancy ludes to the “quantities ” of English and nimbleness of his talent, but the men and women who have come to Nauniversality of his knowledge and the ples “for shelter from the American boldness of his speculations.

tempest," and adds, “ Meanwhile the a few words from a letter dated at Na- Washingtons and Hancocks will be faples, 12th October, 1776, in which he tal to them.” In still another, dated brings forward the idea of “races," so at Naples, 25 July, 1778, he renews important in our day, with an illustra

Here are

* Galiani, Correspondence, Tome II. p. tion from Russia :

See also Grimm, Correspondence, Tome IX. p. * Biographie Universelle of Michaud; also of | Galiani, Tome II. p. 203 ; Grimm, Tomc IX. Didot; Louis Blanc, Histoire de la Révolution

p. 285. Française, Tome I. pp. 390, 545 - 551.

Galiani, Tome II. p. 275.

221.

282.

his prophecies in language still more he predicts nothing less than the transexplicit :

fer of empire. “ You will at this time have decided “ The distance of America from the the greatest revolution of the globe; seat of government, the natives of that namely, if it is America which is to country might flatter themselves, with reign over Europe, or if it is Europe some appearance of reason too, would which is to continue to reign over not be of very long continuance. Such America. I will wager in favor of has hitherto been the rapid progress of America, for the reason merely physi- that country in wealth, population, and cal, that for five thousand years genius improvement, that, in the course of lithas turned opposite to the diurnal mo- tle more than a century, perhaps, the tion, and travelled from the East to the produce of America might exceed that West." *

of British taxation. The seat of the Here again is the idea of Berkeley empire would then naturally remove which has been so captivating. itself to that part of the empire which

contributed most to the general defence ADAM SMITH. — 1776.

and support of the whole." *

In these tranquil words of assured In contrast with the witty Italian is science this great author carries the the illustrious philosopher and writer seat of government across the Atlanof Scotland, Adam Smith, who was tic. born 5th June, 1723, and died 17th July, 1790. His fame is so commanding that GOVERNOR POWnALL. — 1777, 1780, any details of his life or works would

1785. be out of place on this occasion. He was a thinker and an inventor, through AMONG the best friends of our counwhom mankind was advanced in knowl- try abroad during the trials of the Revedge.

olution was Thomas Pownall, called by I say nothing of his " Theory of one biographer a learned antiquary · Moral Sentiments,” which constitutes and politician,” and by another “an an important contribution to the science English statesman and author.” Latof ethics, but come at once to his great terly he has so far dropped out of sight, work of political economy, entitled “In- that there are few who recognize in him quiry into the Nature and Sources of either of these characters.

He was the Wealth of Nations,” which first ap- born, 1722, and died at Bath, 1805. peared in 1776. Its publication marks an During this long period he held severepoch which is described by Mr. Buckle al offices. As early as 1745 he became when he says: “Adam Smith contrib- secretary to the Commission for Trade uted nore, by the publication of this sin- and Plantations. In 1753 he crossed gle work, toward the happiness of man, the ocean. In 1755, as Commissioner for than has been effected by the united Massachusetts Bay, he negotiated with abilities of all the statesmen and legis- New York, New Jersey, and Pennsyllators of whom history has preserved vania, in union with New England, the an authentic account.” The work is confederated expedition against Crown full of prophetic knowledge, and espe- Point. He was afterwards Governor cially with regard to the British colo- of Massachusetts Bay, New Jersey, nies. Writing while the debate with and South Carolina, successively. Rethe mother country was still pending, turning to England, he was, in 1761, Adam Smith urged that they should Comptroller-General of the army in Gerbe admitted to Parliamentary repre- many, with the military rank of Colonel. sentation in proportion to taxation, so He sat in three successive Parliaments that their representation would enlarge until 1780, when he passed into private with their growing resources; and here

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* Smith, Wealth of Nations, Book IV. cap. 7, * Guliani, Tone II. p. 275.

part 3

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